We are often asked how the wax print fabrics we use to create our African print clothing are made, so we thought it would be helpful to share the process in detail with you.
The fabric we use is locally sourced in Tanzania and is made in Nigeria, West Africa, where the whole process is highly respected as a craft and a labour-intensive art form. In this blog we’re going to take a look at the complex and time-consuming production process involved in creating these incredible textiles.
BASIC STEPS IN AFRICAN WAX PRINT FABRIC PRODUCTION
Raw cotton yarns are woven into grey cloth that is stiff and dirty. The cloth is then bleached white to clean and remove any impurities before being strengthened and stretched to its desired width.
The prints are designed on a computer using CAD software in black and white form. Traditionally two or three colours are added to the cloth at the end of the production process. Each print design is usually produced in several different colourways.
The design is engraved onto a pair of copper rollers before being printed onto both sides of the cloth using melted, molten wax. The wax used is a natural product that comes from pine tree resin.
The cloth is then put into an indigo dye bath where the exposed parts of the cloth are dyed and the resin covered parts are resisted. This process can also cause naturally formed fine cracks in the wax, which can allow small amounts of the dye to seep through onto the cloth.
The wax is then deliberately cracked using specific machinery depending on the desired outcome such as marbling and bubbles.
African Wax Print Fabric Showing Crackling Effect
Large, industrial printing machines are used to add solid colours to the design either before and/or after the wax is removed from the cloth. Sometimes part of the design is hand carved onto a wooden block and applied to the fabric by hand (called block printing). This colouration process is key to producing the highly distinctive and vibrant colours of all of our garments from African Dresses to African print trousers.
The cloth is then washed to remove all the small residues of wax and excess dyes ensuring that colour fastness standards are met.
There are different types of finishes that are applied to the cloth depending on the desired outcome. The fabric can sometimes look shiny which disappears after the first initial wash. Certain fabrics are more expensive due to the type of finishing used at the end of the manufacturing process, which can be costly.
Abdallah pattern cutting a Kitenge men’s long sleeve shirt at his workshop in Tanzania
Due to the nature of the wax printing process it is impossible to make each piece of cloth look exactly the same so they are truly unique. Furthermore because our tailors cut the fabric used to make our clothing by hand, the print positioning is different on each item meaning each one is one of a kind!